A competency model is a list of all the skills that someone in a particular role needs to do at a target level in order to be successful in that role. And success means that they are achieving their part of corporate strategy – what the organization needs them to do, very specifically. Some people call a competency model as a “capability framework” or “skills rubric”.
A skills matrix or skills inventory is the output of a competency assessment, where people assess themselves against the competency model. So 100 field services technicians assess their skills in their role, and a skills matrix or inventory results – you know who meets or exceeds the requirements for specific skills. And you can then leverage that information to put the right people on the right projects, and form the best and most successful teams.
The competency assessment will also identify who does not meet the requirements for specific skills – that is, it identifies skill gaps. It is extremely common for each person, no matter how tenured or how experienced, to have one or more skill gaps in their role. You want to be able to provide each person with a personalized learning plan to help them close their gap. This requires that you identify which learning activities can close which skill gaps… that’s competency-based learning.
Essentially, you are mapping the behaviors of the target level of proficiency to the learning objectives of the activities. And in many cases, you create a skill practice, job aid, or checklist that will help someone be able to learn the right skills while they are doing their work. We call this embedded or workflow learning (the “70” in the 70-20-10 model). It’s effective because it’s not separate from the work that needs to be done.